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A STRATEGY OF A BEAUTIFICATION, OR HOW ‘THE DECADENT ISTANBUL’ TURNED INTO THE ‘PEARL OF TURKEY’

Kalina Peeva

Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology

(Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) Bulgaria

Abstract: The present study examines Istanbul’s transformation in the period between the proclamation of the Turkish republic in 1923 and the end of the Democratic Party’s rule in 1960. The reasons for the exclusion of the old imperial capital from early initiatives for constructing the modern Turkish nation-state are laid out, as well as the process of gradual integration of the Seljuk, Ottoman, and Byzantine architectural heritage into the paradigm of the ‘national’. The urban planning changes carried out under the direction of the French urbanist H. Prost are also examined, along with the radical spatial and architectural transformation undertaken during A. Menderes’ time which definitively destroyed the historical appearance of the city. The study further traces the attitude towards the minority clusters in Istanbul and imperial elites that proved to be a crucial element influencing government policy in one direction or another during the entire period of examination in line with the changes in state ideology.

Keywords: Istanbul, Modernization, Nationalism, Religious Minorities, Urban Planning


 

 

OLD FOES NEW FRIENDS: BULGARIANS AND TURKS AT DOBRUDJA FRONT (1916-1917)

Kalina Peeva

Institute of Balkan Studies & Centre of Thracology

(Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)

Abstract: This article highlights the Bulgarian-Turkish military cooperation during the First World War, in particular at Dobrudja Front. The issue is not well studied in the existing scholarship, and authors frequently express opposite opinions and assessments. Furthermore, it should be underlined that most of the studies of Bulgarian authors from the last two decades, which focus on the battles in Dobrudja 1916-1917, often ignore the involvement of Turkish troops at this front. At the same time, the issue of the joint operations of Bulgarians and Turks is especially interesting due to the fact that the recent enemies in the Balkan Wars – Bulgaria and Turkey, now fight as allies. Furthermore, the Third Bulgarian Army at Dobrudja Front, comprising also two Turkish corps, fought against Russian troops, which according to the traditions from the time of the Russian-Turkish War 1877-1878 are considered “liberators of Bulgaria from the Ottoman yoke”.

The article examines the diplomatic preparation for Bulgaria’s entry in the First World War, the contractual relations with Turkey, the course of the military events at Dobrudja Front, as well as the diplomatic negotiations after the end of the military actions, which significantly deteriorate the Bulgarian-Turkish relations again.

 

Keywords: World War One, Dobrudja Front, Bulgaria-Turkey Military Relations